How the use of technology and the identifiable victim effect in charity campaigning has potential to positively impact fundraising targets.

Written for Research To Action

Thomas Schelling acknowledged the identifiable victim effect in 1986 stating, “an individual life described in detail evokes more sympathy and aid than an equivalent life described as a statistic.” Multimedia refers to campaigns that contain more than two media modes, such as text, images and video, campaigns with text and a photo are generally not considered multimedia.

 The identifiable victim effect in combination with multimedia in charitable campaigns’ can positively impact the cognitive and emotional processes of possible donors. Decision-making involves a dual process model of cognition, both cognitive and affective, often referred to as the intellectual and insightful. The latter process is associated with emotions and the cognitive or intellectual process is considered a more deliberate process of thinking, triggered by information rather than emotion. The affective system has been described as a adaptive system that automatically, effortlessly, and intuitively organizes experience and directs behaviour, thus more valuable than deliberative thinking (an output of the cognitive system). The power of the affective system can trigger potential donors willingness to support risk–reducing action (donating).

The use of multimedia in various charity communications campaigns can trigger strong affective thinking used unconsciously by the reader, who can become transported into a campaign containing auditory and visual elements. Audiovisuals can give a viewer a sense of participating in an event or, at least, witnessing it personally. They can enhance the experience of transportation as it provides a deeper impression of victims within narrative, facilitating the reader in identifying with people and situations. Mental imagery resulting from transportation has been known to positively influence potential donors decision-making processes, towards giving funds to help supply aid.

Multimedia can make messages more memorable than text alone, whilst stimulating potential donors. Arguably, when an identifiable victim rather than a group is featured with multimedia elements, the reader’s psychological pulse towards donation is longer lasting. It is suggested that people can become more mentally, and emotionally engaged when they process information about specific individuals than when they process information about non specific targets. The combination of the identifiable victim effect and multimedia provoke deeper mental engagement with memory banks; therefore application of both within a charitable campaign suggests they will have extended effects on a potential donor exposed to the campaign. This could in turn encourage potential donors to partake in donating to a cause at a later date, if they did not choose to do so at the initial exposure to the campaign as a result of memories stored.

Although context alone can create strong imagery and a sense of transportation for a potential donor, it is suggested that the cognitive system is more responsive to pictures than to words. Stimulation through mental imagery is increased if audio-visual aspects are available, lack of audio-visual aspects reduces the effective process of cognition due to a decreased sense of vividness and recall and gain. All these cognitive processes are triggered by the strong mental imagery produced by embedded multimedia. This overpowering impact on the effective process of cognition can have a positive impact on the cognitive process undertaken by a potential donor, upon considering donating to a cause.




Trainspotting 2: First an opportunity. Then betrayal.

(Warning: spoilers)

Choose nostalgia, Choose funny, Choose a brutal dark comedy about middle-aged male disappointment, Choose Danny Boyle’s follow-up to the cult 1996 hit, choose Trainspotting 2.

The four main characters of the first movie make a comeback, Renton (Ewan McGregor), Spud (Ewen Bremner), Sick Boy (Jonny Lee Miller), and Begbie (Robert Carlyle). Mark Renton comes back after his marriage breaks down to confront the demons of his past (Well really it’s to face three guys he ripped off after a drug deal at the end of the last film).

Watch Official Trailer 

Danny Boyle’s Trainspotting 2, officially known as T2, reunites the original cast for a new adventure 21 years on and I’d say it works a treat. Sequels are always a risk, especially to such a nostalgic film and I have to admit the sequel isn’t quite as entertaining and extraordinary as the original. Renton doesn’t appear to look that much older and the same also goes for Sick Boy, which is pretty surprising considering he has exchanged heroin for cocaine. Oh and he also runs an escort business, which involves secretly videoing clients and extorting money, in conjunction with his female business partner Veronika (Anjela Nedyalkova). Spud is emotionally scarred by a lifetime of drug abuse, which later is all summed in a very disturbing scene when Renton finds Spud with a plastic bag over his head that is filled with his own sick.

Begbie has been in jail since the end of the first film and still has a face like thunder. A face that seeks revenge on Renton for his betrayal, Begbie plans a daring escape from prison to pursue this revenge.

The three hopeless part time drug addicts come to a depressing realisation – the truth that who you are in your 20s is who you are going to be in your 40s. Many people (myself included) feel that they can relate to the second film in terms of it questing our need to work out who we are, and to understand why we aren’t where we’d expected to be. As a twenty-one year old I think I’m still feeling the first part.

 “Nostalgia, that’s why you’re here,” says Sick Boy to Renton at another point. “You’re a tourist in your own youth.”

 T2 oozes nostalgia through Danny Boyle’s choice to blend old and new through the remix of the original’s most iconic song, Iggy Pop’s “Lust For Life”, by way of The Prodigy. Renton visits his childhood home and is reluctant to play Lust For Life on his record player, in fear of transportation to darker days.

You’re taken back to the old times not only through a familiar soundtrack and flashbacks of the original, but through the twist of Spud taking up writing about the past. This hobby was taken up after Renton told him to “channel his addictive tendencies into something more productive than hard drugs.” At various points in the film Spud and Begbie reminisce over the old times through spuds narration of his stories, which are written on scrap pieces of paper pined to the wall.

One of the stories captures a iconic scene from the first film as Spud reads out his own dialogue, capturing it word for word: “That lassie got glassed, and no c**t leaves here until we know what c**t did it.”

Finally, the film takes an updated contemporary twist on the famous Trainspotting‘s classic ‘Choose Life’ monologue that inspired an entire generation of teenagers. Here’s just a snippet of the monologue:

“Choose life Choose Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and hope that someone, somewhere cares, Choose looking up old flames, wishing you’d done it all differentlyand then take a deep breath, You’re an addict, so be addicted Just be addicted to something else, Choose the ones you love Choose your future Choose life.”

Overall, it is definitely worth watching, but I personally wouldn’t bother with the second if you’ve not watched the first. As a film that at times can drown in nostalgia, a first timer to Trainspotting wouldn’t’ feel as satisfied. CHOOSE BOTH.

Pumpkin spice and everything nice

It’s Fall, which can only mean pumpkin spiced lattes, cosy jumpers and scented candles. The leaves are changing and so is your wardrobe! It’s time to pack away those shorts and vest tops and replace them with pretty ponchos and beautiful boots. We’ve got your Fall wardrobe sorted from frosty mornings to bonfire evenings…



O’N E I L L- W I N T E R / F A L L

Our passion for surfing doesn’t fade with the last summer sunset. We’ve always been dedicated to keep our fellow riders going no matter the time, weather or location. So what if we find ourselves in a beautiful snow-coated landscape, say on an unreasonably far away and cold Arctic island, yet still wanted to keep on rocking the surf lifestyle? That’s the kind of dreams you’ve never dreamed of. And that’s the kind of dream our Fall/Winter collection intends to let you experience for yourself.

1. Print Surflegging – £44.99

2. Americana T-Shirt – £22.99

3. Cool Cotton Parka – £179.99

4. Traveller Shirt – £49.99

5. Zephyr Mid Lt W Melee Sneaker- £64.99

6. Everyday Scarf – £29.99 updateee4  

B I L L A B O N G – S O  F A R  S O  G O O D

As we make no rush to see the true season change, ‘So Far So Good’ takes an upbeat approach to early Fall dressing. Think ‘70s Laurel Canyon meets preppy surf, with fresh of-the-moment spins on our favourite old school styles. Get wrapped in homespun ponchos, using diluted tie-dye and spray bleach aspect for a cloudy and nebulous effect. With a wear-now, layer-later sensibility, this playful collection sits with untamed geos both pretty and proper.

1.Basic Tee £18.00

2.DayDreamin Hat £35.00

3.Tender Pant £58.00

4.Cutting Loose Boots £72.00

5. Desert Voyage Poncho £64.00 autumn-surfgirl-article-2 R O X Y- P E R P E T U A L   W A T E R  

Roxy’s new Perpetual Water collection part of their autumn-winter range will make your Fall one to remember. This beautiful collection incorporates traditional Polynesian patterns and vibrant colours of the sea, whilst entwining Japanese fashion and Hawaiian culture, it’s a must have this season.

1.Soul Searchin Open Poncho £70.00

2.Boyfriend Stellar Door T-Shirt £25.00 3.Tropical Vibe – Beach Bag £30.00

4.Austin – Ankle Boots £65.00

5.Rebel Bikers Jeans £65.00

6.Winter Bobble Hat grey £27.00 updateee3

R I P C U R L- T H E S E A R C H

Early 90’s, The Search concept was the best way to define what it meant to be part of Rip Curl and it was the driving forces that lead to it’s creation. The Search collection by Rip Curl was inspired by the first “teaser ads” depicting a new mysterious “Search logo” which ran in February and March in 1992. The Search collection represents the feeling that brings all surfers together; Groms, young guys and girls and older surfers alike all knew what the feeling was and what it meant to dream from those images of the perfect lineup. The images that were splashed across Rip Curl’s early adds, it’s all about that feeing only a surfer knows.

1.Atacama Sweater £69.99

2.Antofagasta Jacket £149.99

3.Bahia Pants £49.99

4.Chile Hat £39.99 autumn-surfgirl-article-4 P A S S E N G E R- W A V E S & T R E E S Combining the love for nature and clothes Passengers Waves & Trees collection is something so special. Wherever we are there are trees, as a chid we may have climbed up them, picnicked by them or even used their branches to burn so we could toast our marshmallows on these chilly fall nights. Leaves go from a lushes green to a crisp auburn and sprinkle the streets, pathways and fields. Trees are a reminder that we should spend more time in the outdoors and they teach us to value the places we love. Passenger noticed all that they do for us and because of this, they plant a tree for every order that they receive from this collection.

1.Yosemite Plaid Shirt shirt £50.99

2.Yukon Popover Oil Blue Hoodie

3.Dawn Patrol Padded Navy Jacket £89.99

4.Waffalofagus Rust Beanie £17.99

Brexit: Young people can’t blame it on the ‘older generation’

There is much frustration amongst the younger generation in light of the outcome of the European Referendum held on the 23rd of June this year. Brexit has resulted in many ‘younger people’ blaming the ‘older generation’ as 58% of 64+ year olds voted to leave in comparison to the 64% of 25s and under that wanted to remain.

Brennus Moors, age 67, Falmouth resident of 20 years said: “I voted Brexit because I think its about time England sorted out their own problems and made their own decisions with the government.

I feel like the older generation have been through all that and are ready for the change as they have seen both sides of it and have lived through the last 20 years of being in the EU and are not happy with it so that’s why they want out.”
It has been estimated that only 36% of people in the 18 – 24 year old category voted in the EU referendum, 64% of young people did not bother. Should we blaming the older generation for Brexit or the non-voters of the younger generation?

Many ‘young people’ that did take political civic participation in the referendum and voted remain are angry at their fellow generations lack of support, by wasting their vote as they feel that together the younger generation could have overthrown the Brexit vote favoured by the ‘older generation’.
Izzy Adams, a Journalism student at Falmouth University voted remain and said: “I believe it is important to vote as it represents the voice of our generation and it is a waste of a vote to ruin your ballot card or not vote at all. The referendum determined our future and as a student I want the option to have access to Europe and to travel abroad.”

Similarly, Elle Kydd, a Fashion photography student at Falmouth University who also voted remain said: “This is the toughest most realistic lesson we’re going to learn as a generation. We didn’t get our act together and stand up for ourselves; we have never had any real issues to face – so when Brexit came along, we just assumed it would be okay, someone will sort it and look where it got us. Brexit has been a big wake up call, an ice cold self inflicted wake up call.”

The turnout for the referendum in Cornwall was 77% while Truro & Falmouth saw 53 % voting remain and 47 % leave. Sarah Newton, MP for Truro and Falmouth was the only Cornish MP that campaigned to remain in the EU. Falmouth and Cornwall were the only constituency to have a higher percentage of remain voters. This could be highly linked to a big presence of the ‘younger generation’ in Falmouth and Truro due to the university and college who usually favour the remain vote.
Sarah Newton feels strongly about young people voting and involving themselves in politics. She said: “Electoral participation is significantly lower among 18-24 year olds compared with older people and there are many factors to address in this situation.

‘They’re quick to moan about Brexit and point fingers but not so quick to draw an X on a ballot paper’
Encouraging young people to get involved in politics is something I personally dedicate a considerable amount of time to. I regularly meet with young people across my constituency.”

On the 23rd June, over 17 million people across the United Kingdom, and over a million people in Scotland, voted to leave the European Union. But the difference between Brexit and remain was close, 51.9% and 48.1%, if the rest of the younger generation had voted, the outcome could have been very different.
The gap between Remain and Leave was 1,269,501 votes. The anticipated population of 20 – 24 year olds in 2015 was 3,806,471. Shockingly only 492,306 applied to register to vote in the months running up to the election.

In January 2016 it was announced that almost £10 million was being allocated to increase the number of people registering to vote across the country. The groups awarded funding include the British Youth Council and UK Youth. A campaign by the National Union of Students is also being funded. But even with all this help being put in place to get all the younger generation to use their vote, it appears that they’re quick to moan about Brexit and point fingers at the ‘older generation’ but not so quick to draw an X on a ballot paper.

For all the younger generation that voted, you are the hope for the future as the referendum has proved that every vote counts. The gap between Remain and Leave was just 1,269,501, if we’d used all our votes as a generation our future could reflect one that was dictated by the majority of the younger generation, remain.

Lousie Searle: Dreaming to reality in the media industry


Entrepreneur, editor and Cornish woman, Louise Searle, works round the clock to keep her print business going. If she’s not out in the waves or at a yoga class, she’s in the office maintaining her dream.

Searle has always been an adventure seeker and has never allowed her gender to hold her back. As a child she could always be found on the streets, skating with the boys. She also loved hanging out at the beach, watching the surfers, longing to be out there in the endless blue ocean, but back in the 70’s “there definitely weren’t the opportunities for girls to learn how to surf like there are now,” she explains.

From seaside local to big city student, Searle moved away from the fresh sea air of a seaside town to the dusty, busy environment of a city to pursue her career as an editor and business owner. She took her bags and travelled to Bristol Poly because it was one of the near ones to Cornwall. This meant that she could drive home a lot to get her fix of fresh air, their she achieved a BA Hons in Humanities. But that was just the start of her career path as she carried on her path at The London at University of the Arts.

She found that having an, “unrelated to anything degree isn’t very good for your career path.” So she moved to the big city of London and decided to pay for herself to study a Post Grad Diploma in Printing and Publishing.

Searle was very interested in getting into publishing and has always been determined, so after completing her post grad degree there was loads of job opportunities, but not in her beloved home of surf and sand, Cornwall.

After a few years of staring at concrete and tall bleak buildings, Searle grew to loath dragging her feet along subway and tubes to arrive at her publishing jobs. The seaside was calling her and so was a new career move, so she moved back to Cornwall in the early ‘90s because she missed the sea so much, she was fed up with looking at concrete.

Searle stated: “I moved back to Cornwall but there weren’t any jobs here in the 90’s Cornwall was a very poor county not like it is today. So we had to create our own.”

Using her insinuative, Searle set out on her journey as a business owner with the help of the Prince’s Trust a youth charity that helps young people aged 13-30 get into jobs and build their own businesses. Her and her partner were both into bodyboarding so they set up ThreeSixty a Bodyboarding magazine, which lead to her starting Carve and then her dream of Orca Publications, was born.

Searle looks like a body boarder and a surfer with her sandy blonde hair, tanned skin and healthy glow, body covered in silver turquoise jewellery. Her mannerisms are laid back despite having a desk piled with paperwork and many to do sticky notes across her computer. But she always knew her dream would come at a cost.

Her dream of women in the surf industry being respected and looked up to, her dream of her magazine called SurfGirl. Searle was driven and inspired to create her own magazine, because she was, “fed up with seeing shots of women walking down the beach with a board under their arm. Thought it was time for a change.”

Searle spends most of her days and evenings in her tall office that over looks Newquay in Cornwall. Her days consist of countless jobs. Centrally her role is to keep the company going through the good times and  the bad, which is not easy in Cornwall producing mainly print. From 10am in the morning it’s all go for Searle as editor of two magazines and a business owner there’s barely any time for her favourite, a slice of cake and cup of extremely strong coffee.

Searle’s day consists of reading all the emails, usually people from all over the world who want to be involved in her magazine, SurfGirl. Then most probably over coffee and cake she’ll have a chat with shop manager about how the online shop’s going and make some decisions about that. Not only does she run two magazines Carve, a surfing magazine for men and SurfGirl, a surfing magazine for women, but she also runs an online shop alongside both of these.

As late morning approaches Searle usually sets up social media for the day on Hootsuite for SurfGirl and the Beach Boutique online shop. Five coffees later, and its time for her to check out any new stories, do some work on Carve and sort out some accounts. Then after all that if there’s time do some cool stuff like work out what’s going in the next magazine, or arrange a photo shoot for the Beach Boutique or come up with some ideas to design something new. It doesn’t stop from the moment she opens her eyes in the morning to the moment she shuts them the next evening.

But it’s not all about sitting in the office for Searle; she’s built a business that allows her to move away from her office chair. She jets off around the world getting content for SurfGirl magazine. Just this year she went to Ipso in Munich to attend a massive sports action trade show and go to see the brands to sort out planning for the year. Then In October she went to France for the Quicksilver and Roxy Pro to see the event, interview some surfers and meet up with the brands again.

There are successes and failures with any business and Searle has a very upbeat attitude towards everything.


Check out all her achievements in action here:



Cornish MPs fight to revitalise Cornish language

By Emily Furness

 Cornish MPs fight to support the Cornish language despite its annual £150,000 funding being stopped.

 The majority of Cornish MPs took their oath in Cornish and are disappointed at the Department of Communities and Local Government’s decision to stop all finding for the Cornish language, since it was recognised as a regional and minority language in 2003.

Sarah Newton, MP for Truro and Falmouth, said: “I took my oath of allegiance in Cornish as I had been asked to do so by some of my constituents and as I knew it meant a lot to them, I was pleased to do so.”

Cornish MPs such as Sarah Newton bid to keep funding for the minority language.

Newton, added: “I am disappointed that the bid was unsuccessful on this occasion…. I will continue to work with my colleagues and Cornwall Council to ensure that the Cornish language as well as Cornish culture and history continues to flourish.”

There are only 300-500 fluent Cornish language speakers in Cornwall. However, there are a larger number of people with some Cornish and who are learning.

Over 1,000 people have subscribed to the online course “Say Something in Cornish,” run by the Cornish language partnership, Maga.

Mark Trevethan, Head of the Cornish Language Unit, Cornwall Council said: “Official backing and funding for the language over the last 10 years has made a massive difference to increasing visibility of the language, changing perceptions of the language, creating resources to make it easier to study Cornish.”

George Eustice, MP for Camborne, Redruth and Hayle also took his oath in Cornish and is looking to find alternative ways to fund the language since the cuts.

Eustice said: “I will be exploring alternative sources of government funding to support the wider development of Cornwall’s culture and heritage through the new Kresen Kernow centre in Redruth, this could include providing support for the Cornish language.”

MPs of Cornwall are working with the Cornish language, community and representative organisations such as the Gorseth, to develop a strategy on how to safeguard and grow the Cornish language in the future.

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