How the use of technology and the identifiable victim effect in charity campaigning has potential to positively impact fundraising targets.

Written for Research To Action

Thomas Schelling acknowledged the identifiable victim effect in 1986 stating, “an individual life described in detail evokes more sympathy and aid than an equivalent life described as a statistic.” Multimedia refers to campaigns that contain more than two media modes, such as text, images and video, campaigns with text and a photo are generally not considered multimedia.

 The identifiable victim effect in combination with multimedia in charitable campaigns’ can positively impact the cognitive and emotional processes of possible donors. Decision-making involves a dual process model of cognition, both cognitive and affective, often referred to as the intellectual and insightful. The latter process is associated with emotions and the cognitive or intellectual process is considered a more deliberate process of thinking, triggered by information rather than emotion. The affective system has been described as a adaptive system that automatically, effortlessly, and intuitively organizes experience and directs behaviour, thus more valuable than deliberative thinking (an output of the cognitive system). The power of the affective system can trigger potential donors willingness to support risk–reducing action (donating).

The use of multimedia in various charity communications campaigns can trigger strong affective thinking used unconsciously by the reader, who can become transported into a campaign containing auditory and visual elements. Audiovisuals can give a viewer a sense of participating in an event or, at least, witnessing it personally. They can enhance the experience of transportation as it provides a deeper impression of victims within narrative, facilitating the reader in identifying with people and situations. Mental imagery resulting from transportation has been known to positively influence potential donors decision-making processes, towards giving funds to help supply aid.

Multimedia can make messages more memorable than text alone, whilst stimulating potential donors. Arguably, when an identifiable victim rather than a group is featured with multimedia elements, the reader’s psychological pulse towards donation is longer lasting. It is suggested that people can become more mentally, and emotionally engaged when they process information about specific individuals than when they process information about non specific targets. The combination of the identifiable victim effect and multimedia provoke deeper mental engagement with memory banks; therefore application of both within a charitable campaign suggests they will have extended effects on a potential donor exposed to the campaign. This could in turn encourage potential donors to partake in donating to a cause at a later date, if they did not choose to do so at the initial exposure to the campaign as a result of memories stored.

Although context alone can create strong imagery and a sense of transportation for a potential donor, it is suggested that the cognitive system is more responsive to pictures than to words. Stimulation through mental imagery is increased if audio-visual aspects are available, lack of audio-visual aspects reduces the effective process of cognition due to a decreased sense of vividness and recall and gain. All these cognitive processes are triggered by the strong mental imagery produced by embedded multimedia. This overpowering impact on the effective process of cognition can have a positive impact on the cognitive process undertaken by a potential donor, upon considering donating to a cause.




Trainspotting 2: First an opportunity. Then betrayal.

(Warning: spoilers)

Choose nostalgia, Choose funny, Choose a brutal dark comedy about middle-aged male disappointment, Choose Danny Boyle’s follow-up to the cult 1996 hit, choose Trainspotting 2.

The four main characters of the first movie make a comeback, Renton (Ewan McGregor), Spud (Ewen Bremner), Sick Boy (Jonny Lee Miller), and Begbie (Robert Carlyle). Mark Renton comes back after his marriage breaks down to confront the demons of his past (Well really it’s to face three guys he ripped off after a drug deal at the end of the last film).

Watch Official Trailer 

Danny Boyle’s Trainspotting 2, officially known as T2, reunites the original cast for a new adventure 21 years on and I’d say it works a treat. Sequels are always a risk, especially to such a nostalgic film and I have to admit the sequel isn’t quite as entertaining and extraordinary as the original. Renton doesn’t appear to look that much older and the same also goes for Sick Boy, which is pretty surprising considering he has exchanged heroin for cocaine. Oh and he also runs an escort business, which involves secretly videoing clients and extorting money, in conjunction with his female business partner Veronika (Anjela Nedyalkova). Spud is emotionally scarred by a lifetime of drug abuse, which later is all summed in a very disturbing scene when Renton finds Spud with a plastic bag over his head that is filled with his own sick.

Begbie has been in jail since the end of the first film and still has a face like thunder. A face that seeks revenge on Renton for his betrayal, Begbie plans a daring escape from prison to pursue this revenge.

The three hopeless part time drug addicts come to a depressing realisation – the truth that who you are in your 20s is who you are going to be in your 40s. Many people (myself included) feel that they can relate to the second film in terms of it questing our need to work out who we are, and to understand why we aren’t where we’d expected to be. As a twenty-one year old I think I’m still feeling the first part.

 “Nostalgia, that’s why you’re here,” says Sick Boy to Renton at another point. “You’re a tourist in your own youth.”

 T2 oozes nostalgia through Danny Boyle’s choice to blend old and new through the remix of the original’s most iconic song, Iggy Pop’s “Lust For Life”, by way of The Prodigy. Renton visits his childhood home and is reluctant to play Lust For Life on his record player, in fear of transportation to darker days.

You’re taken back to the old times not only through a familiar soundtrack and flashbacks of the original, but through the twist of Spud taking up writing about the past. This hobby was taken up after Renton told him to “channel his addictive tendencies into something more productive than hard drugs.” At various points in the film Spud and Begbie reminisce over the old times through spuds narration of his stories, which are written on scrap pieces of paper pined to the wall.

One of the stories captures a iconic scene from the first film as Spud reads out his own dialogue, capturing it word for word: “That lassie got glassed, and no c**t leaves here until we know what c**t did it.”

Finally, the film takes an updated contemporary twist on the famous Trainspotting‘s classic ‘Choose Life’ monologue that inspired an entire generation of teenagers. Here’s just a snippet of the monologue:

“Choose life Choose Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and hope that someone, somewhere cares, Choose looking up old flames, wishing you’d done it all differentlyand then take a deep breath, You’re an addict, so be addicted Just be addicted to something else, Choose the ones you love Choose your future Choose life.”

Overall, it is definitely worth watching, but I personally wouldn’t bother with the second if you’ve not watched the first. As a film that at times can drown in nostalgia, a first timer to Trainspotting wouldn’t’ feel as satisfied. CHOOSE BOTH.

Does this float your boat? Self-sufficient Fal cafe planned

Plans to open a floating river café similar to those in World War One, have been postponed due to environmental concerns.

The FalRiver Company are proposing to open a floating café on the Fal River, initial plans propose that the café will be moored at the south end of King Harry Reach along the river Fal.

The directors hoped that the business would be open by Easter this year, however plans have now been put on hold due to environmental disputes.

The café will have no shore connections meaning the new venue will be completely self-sufficient and self-contained.

A spokesperson from The FalRiver Company, who wishes to remain anonymous, said: “The café is now more likely to open in spring 2018 due to disputes regarding the affects the café could have on surrounding environment. We can’t say much else about our current plans at the moment.”

Concerns have been expressed by The Environment Agency, regarding water pollution and waste produced by the café. Additional environmental impacts such as potential damage to local mussel beds, which grow in the proposed location, have also been discussed.

Peter Brooke, a local resident and fish monger, said: “I think it would struggle commercially, I can’t see how it would be a good business plan from a commercial point of view.

“There is already a café in Trelissick Gardens itself and on the boat trips they have their own refreshments on board for passengers. I would also be a bit concerned of waste products produced by the café.”

The café will be anchored down to the seabed in order to stop the structure going adrift. It is rumoured that the local environment agency has said that this could potentially affect the growing mussel beds.

The FalRiver Company are proposing to provide transport to the café, leaving from The Prince of Wales Pier in Falmouth.

The structure will be around 200 Meters Square in size with plans for an additional pontoon, current plans propose that the café will be open for eight months of the year and is expected to seat up to 100 people.

The Alba Floating Tea Rooms was a novelty café operating before and during World War One. Local boatmen would take customers for day trips, where clients could purchase a cup of tea and a piece of cake for one shilling a head.

The new planned floating cafe aims to replica this historic business, by bringing some of its traditional customs back to life in a contemporary setting.

FalRiver hopes that the café will provide a good day out for locals and tourists alike. While also giving people the opportunity to see some of the natural beauty spots surrounding Falmouth.

Warning: ink envy. Tattoo art exhibition at Maritime Museum

The National Maritime Museum in Falmouth has a major new temporary exhibition for 2017: Tattoo: British Tattoo Art Revealed.

The exhibition will be running from the 17th March 2017 to 7th January 2018.

The exhibition offers visitors a genuinely ground-breaking and comprehensive history of British tattooing, featuring cutting edge designers, leading academics and major private collectors to tell a story that challenges long-standing myths and pre-conceptions about tattooing when it comes to class, gender and age.

At the same time the display aims to give a voice to the astonishingly rich artistic heritage of tattooing as an art form in the UK.

The iconic image used for the promotion of the exhibition

Derryth Ridge, fellow Curator of the exhibition, said: “We feel this is a really important story that is an important part of our social history. I feel this is the perfect place to tell that story.

“One of the myths we are trying to bust through the exhibition is that tattooing is not gender or era specific and women have been tattooed throughout the years. I really like tattoos, sometimes its just because I like the look of them, sometimes its because of the meaning behind them.”

It is estimated that about one in five people in the UK have a tattoo. However, many still believe tattoos remain a taboo subject for many people. Whilst the visibility of tattooing in contemporary culture may feel like something new, tattoos and tattoo art have always held a significant place in Britain’s history.

The exhibition explores this rich history in depth and shows that while the word tattoo may have come into the English language following Captain Cook’s voyage, this was not the start of the story of British tattooing.

Fredrick, volunteer at the Maritime Museum, said: “I’m slightly biased because I have a tattoo myself, of a butterfly. I haven’t seen all of the exhibition yet but I think it’s excellent and it’s been really popular.”

While showcasing the heritage of tattoos, the exhibition also shows how people from all areas of society have tattooed using different technique. From ruffians to royalty; from sailors to socialites; from pilgrims to punks: tattoos have been etched into bodies throughout British history as a means of expressing both individual and group identity.

The exhibition provides a fantastic insight into a part of British history, which has had little coverage. To find out more follow #notjustforsailors or visit the National Maritime museum website for ticket prices

Ocean therapy: Surf Action helps veterans with PTSD

Produced by Emily Furness   Presenter and contributing writer: Amy Wall

Produced for: Surf Action 

A Cornish charity helps servicemen battle the waves at Tolcarne beach every Saturday – no matter what the weather.

Established in 2009, Surf Action is a leading Cornish based charity, which strives to help military personnel suffering from physical and physiological injuries, including Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The charity aims to reintegrate members of the Armed Forces back into civilian life through the many benefits of surfing.

Alan Reynolds, a 57 year old veteran and clinic participant, said: “There are an increasing number of older veterans coming forward from legacy conflicts such as the Falklands and Northern Ireland because knowledge of, and attitudes towards have changed massively. I tried to commit suicide two and a half years ago.”

Alan hitting the water for some ocean therapy

“I turned to alcohol as a coping mechanism and I don’t really sleep. Thanks to the charity I have a formal diagnosis and know a lot more about PTSD and how to control it. By going surfing every week I have something I can rely on, so even if I’ve had a rubbish week.”

Alan also describes how even simplest things, such as wearing a surf cap over his ears to keep warm, can trigger claustrophobia and unease.

Officially recognised in the 1980’s, PTSD is described as an anxiety disorder, which often follows witnessing a violence or traumatic event. Symptoms include insomnia, flash backs and extreme anxiety.

The affects of PTSD on the body

The charity recognises that surfing, as a vigorous activity, uses up any excesses in the body similarly as we would by running away or fighting, leading to a more positive and calmer outlook.

Joel Hewitt, a volunteer for Surf Action said that he believes it helps to talk to someone who isn’t from the military.

Surf Action members meet in Newquay on a weekly basis, with several uncompromising members not being swayed by the winter elements.

Mel Murphy, Surf Action Coordinator and RAF servicewoman, said: “I’ve been involved with Surf Action for around 4 years now. The charity aims to get all the family involved bringing the family back together, as well as focusing on the physical benefits that surfing and being in the outdoors brings.”

  • Surfing has been introduced to many veterans suffering with PTSD because;
    • It introduces you to a close knit group/tribe which the human brain works best with and in some ways replicates service life
    • By surfing in the natural environment it naturally boosts the body’s production of endorphins such as Serotonin which gives a feeling of happiness.
    • Surfing burns up the body’s stress chemicals such as Cortisol.
    • It aids the conversion of Serotonin into Melatonin in the evening which aids sleep.
    • The natural noises of the ocean provide a sound barrier from the many land based sounds which can sometimes trigger a flashback and intrusive thoughts.
    • Surfing is a natural form of mindfulness and mindfulness is very important in dealing with the symptoms of PTSD.
    • Surfing with others is a laugh and laughter stimulates the rate of flow through the lymph system and this strengthens your immune system.
    • Surfing is just fun!
    • Surfing is not a cure but it is an effective therapy which can be easily accessed throughout the year.

Pumpkin spice and everything nice

It’s Fall, which can only mean pumpkin spiced lattes, cosy jumpers and scented candles. The leaves are changing and so is your wardrobe! It’s time to pack away those shorts and vest tops and replace them with pretty ponchos and beautiful boots. We’ve got your Fall wardrobe sorted from frosty mornings to bonfire evenings…



O’N E I L L- W I N T E R / F A L L

Our passion for surfing doesn’t fade with the last summer sunset. We’ve always been dedicated to keep our fellow riders going no matter the time, weather or location. So what if we find ourselves in a beautiful snow-coated landscape, say on an unreasonably far away and cold Arctic island, yet still wanted to keep on rocking the surf lifestyle? That’s the kind of dreams you’ve never dreamed of. And that’s the kind of dream our Fall/Winter collection intends to let you experience for yourself.

1. Print Surflegging – £44.99

2. Americana T-Shirt – £22.99

3. Cool Cotton Parka – £179.99

4. Traveller Shirt – £49.99

5. Zephyr Mid Lt W Melee Sneaker- £64.99

6. Everyday Scarf – £29.99 updateee4  

B I L L A B O N G – S O  F A R  S O  G O O D

As we make no rush to see the true season change, ‘So Far So Good’ takes an upbeat approach to early Fall dressing. Think ‘70s Laurel Canyon meets preppy surf, with fresh of-the-moment spins on our favourite old school styles. Get wrapped in homespun ponchos, using diluted tie-dye and spray bleach aspect for a cloudy and nebulous effect. With a wear-now, layer-later sensibility, this playful collection sits with untamed geos both pretty and proper.

1.Basic Tee £18.00

2.DayDreamin Hat £35.00

3.Tender Pant £58.00

4.Cutting Loose Boots £72.00

5. Desert Voyage Poncho £64.00 autumn-surfgirl-article-2 R O X Y- P E R P E T U A L   W A T E R  

Roxy’s new Perpetual Water collection part of their autumn-winter range will make your Fall one to remember. This beautiful collection incorporates traditional Polynesian patterns and vibrant colours of the sea, whilst entwining Japanese fashion and Hawaiian culture, it’s a must have this season.

1.Soul Searchin Open Poncho £70.00

2.Boyfriend Stellar Door T-Shirt £25.00 3.Tropical Vibe – Beach Bag £30.00

4.Austin – Ankle Boots £65.00

5.Rebel Bikers Jeans £65.00

6.Winter Bobble Hat grey £27.00 updateee3

R I P C U R L- T H E S E A R C H

Early 90’s, The Search concept was the best way to define what it meant to be part of Rip Curl and it was the driving forces that lead to it’s creation. The Search collection by Rip Curl was inspired by the first “teaser ads” depicting a new mysterious “Search logo” which ran in February and March in 1992. The Search collection represents the feeling that brings all surfers together; Groms, young guys and girls and older surfers alike all knew what the feeling was and what it meant to dream from those images of the perfect lineup. The images that were splashed across Rip Curl’s early adds, it’s all about that feeing only a surfer knows.

1.Atacama Sweater £69.99

2.Antofagasta Jacket £149.99

3.Bahia Pants £49.99

4.Chile Hat £39.99 autumn-surfgirl-article-4 P A S S E N G E R- W A V E S & T R E E S Combining the love for nature and clothes Passengers Waves & Trees collection is something so special. Wherever we are there are trees, as a chid we may have climbed up them, picnicked by them or even used their branches to burn so we could toast our marshmallows on these chilly fall nights. Leaves go from a lushes green to a crisp auburn and sprinkle the streets, pathways and fields. Trees are a reminder that we should spend more time in the outdoors and they teach us to value the places we love. Passenger noticed all that they do for us and because of this, they plant a tree for every order that they receive from this collection.

1.Yosemite Plaid Shirt shirt £50.99

2.Yukon Popover Oil Blue Hoodie

3.Dawn Patrol Padded Navy Jacket £89.99

4.Waffalofagus Rust Beanie £17.99